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2.  小兒腹瀉-(英文版)
 2014.07.03
作者:兒科衛教護理師黃雪芬整理
1. What is Diarrhea?
 
Diarrhea refers to the frequent passage of bowel movements or movements that are different than normal. If your child’s stool has a strong odor, watery rather than soft stool or stool that contains mucus then likely your child has diarrhea.
 
2. What are the most common causes of diarrhea?
 
- Infections caused by a virus (Rota virus) or bacteria
- Drugs such as antibiotics or laxatives
- Food related reactions; milk allergies, over thickened formula milk, low
  tolerance of milk sugar, stale food, dirty water, inappropriate addition
  of solid baby foods
 
3. What is the diet for diarrhea?
 
- If your child has mild diarrhea dilute the milk or prepare formula using only half of the milk powder and twice as much water.
-The Doctor may suggest using special powdered milk that does not
  contain lactose.
- Maintain good nutrition and hydration. Drink the right amount of oral
  electrolyte fluids.
- When changing the brand of formula gradually replace the old brand
   with the new brand.
-Breast milk is still okay when the baby has diarrhea.
- Doctor may suggest using a supplement of medicine thatcontains bacteria that benefits intestinal digestion. Please note how to use it and the method of storage. If it is added to hot milk or hot water the heat may destroy the bacteria.
-Feed the child smaller amounts frequently throughout the day; thin rice porridge, soup, toast without crust, Chinese bread, apples. Do not have a diet that has high fat or sugar content.
 
4. Please note extra precautions.
 
- Always use clean utensils and fresh food.
- Adults need to pay attention to the shape, color, odor and amount of the baby’s stool and if there is any blood with the diarrhea.
- Wash hands thoroughly before and after touching child.
-Change diapers as needed to keep the baby’s buttocks clean and dry.
- Do not take rectal temperatures or use rectal suppositories.
- Please follow the infection control instructions. Diapers are to be rinsed in bleach for disinfecting prior to disposal.
 

5. How to prevent diarrhea
 
- Hand washing is the most effective means of preventing diarrhea.
- Drink boiled water.
- Bottles and bottle nipples should be sterilized in boiling water before each use.
- Prepare milk formula the right way.
- Discard unused milk after each feeding.
- Discard the diarrhea diapers in disposal unit with lid to avoid spread of bacteria.
- Keep the living area clean.
-  Frequently clean toys.
 
6. Return to hospital if any of the following conditions occur.
 
-Body temperature is higher than 38.5 C over 2 days.
-Child has severe diarrhea and stools contain blood or mucus.
-Child has severe abdominal pain, abdominal distention and vomiting.
-Signs of dehydration, dry lips and tongue, pale and dry skin, sunken eyes, listless or decreased activity, decreased urine output.
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